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A Historic Event in Alignment of Afghan Education System with the Rest of the World

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In the Afghan context, it is culturally embedded that everyone is capable of doing everything with a high level of resiliency and persistence. Therefore, this notion provides a strong collective efficacy among the members of the society and the collective efficacy provides a ground for individual efficacy.

According to Leithwood (2019a) “Efficacy beliefs determine how much risk people will take, how much effort they will expend, and how long they will persist in the face of failure or difficulty. The stronger the self-efficacy the longer the persistence” (p. 40).

Afghan people are known for their resiliency and persistence which is backed by collective and individual efficacy. Over the course of its history, especially in its contemporary history, Afghan people faced numerous challenges and yet persist with resiliency in the face of difficulty.

And now the people of Afghanistan are trying to come out of the miseries of war and conflict and align its social, economic, and educational standards with the rest of the world to become a........

© Khaama Press