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A Nato summit for hawks

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By Frank Gardner
BBC security correspondent, Madrid

Historic, transformative, game-changing. Even before this year's Nato summit began, the epithets were rolling in. For this was the first such summit since Russia's fateful invasion of Ukraine on 24 February.

Would differences bubble up to the surface? Would some countries push for an early ceasefire in Ukraine? Or would the alliance's more hawkish leaders get their way and see a new, robust posture towards Moscow with Nato's borders reinforced?

Most important of all, would Turkey drop its opposition to two key democracies - Finland and Sweden - joining the alliance?

That diplomatic breakthrough came early on with the two Nordic nations set to be fast-tracked to membership after their foreign ministers signed a security pact with Turkey.

The Kremlin reacted with predictable indignation, branding Nato an aggressive, expansionist organisation with imperialistic ambitions.

I asked Jens Stoltenberg, Nato's Secretary General, for his reaction.

"Finland and Sweden," he replied, "are two sovereign democratic nations and they have the right to choose their own path.



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